{\rtf1\mac\ansicpg10000\uc1 \deff0\deflang1033\deflangfe1033{\upr{\fonttbl{\f0\fnil\fcharset256\fprq2{\*\panose 00020206030504050203}Times New Roman;}{\f1\fnil\fcharset256\fprq2{\*\panose 00020b06040202020202}Arial;} {\f5\fnil\fcharset256\fprq2{\*\panose 00020005000000000000}Helvetica;}{\f18\fswiss\fcharset77\fprq0{\*\panose 00000000000000000000}Sylfaen{\*\falt Times};}}{\*\ud{\fonttbl{\f0\fnil\fcharset256\fprq2{\*\panose 00020206030504050203}Times New Roman;} {\f1\fnil\fcharset256\fprq2{\*\panose 00020b06040202020202}Arial;}{\f5\fnil\fcharset256\fprq2{\*\panose 00020005000000000000}Helvetica;}{\f18\fswiss\fcharset77\fprq0{\*\panose 00000000000000000000}Sylfaen{\*\falt Times};}}}}{\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0; \red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;\red0\green0\blue128;\red0\green128\blue128;\red0\green128\blue0;\red128\green0\blue128; 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\lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid \sbasedon0 \snext15 footnote text;}{\*\cs16 \additive \super \sbasedon10 footnote reference;}{\s17\widctlpar \tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \fs22\lang1033\loch\af1\hich\af1\dbch\f5\cgrid \sbasedon0 \snext17 Body Text;}{\s18\qc\widctlpar \tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \fs22\lang1033\loch\af1\hich\af1\dbch\f5\cgrid \sbasedon0 \snext18 Body Text 2;}{\*\cs19 \additive \ul\cf2 \sbasedon10 Hyperlink;}{\s20\qc\widctlpar\tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \fs48\lang1033\loch\af1\hich\af1\dbch\f5\cgrid \sbasedon0 \snext20 Title;}{\s21\widctlpar \tx560\tx1120\tx1680\tx2240\tx2800\tx3360\tx3920\tx4480\tx5040\tx5600\tx6160\tx6720\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \fs28\lang1033\loch\af1\hich\af1\dbch\f5\cgrid \sbasedon0 \snext21 Body Text 3;}}{\info{\title JUSTICE FOR IRAQ} {\author Alex Pilcher}{\operator Alex Pilcher}{\creatim\yr2007\mo9\dy8\hr1}{\revtim\yr2007\mo9\dy8\hr1}{\version2}{\edmins0}{\nofpages9}{\nofwords3421}{\nofchars19505}{\nofcharsws23953}{\vern16411}} \paperw11901\paperh16834\margl1418\margr1418\margt1418\margb1418 \ftnbj\aenddoc\noxlattoyen\expshrtn\noultrlspc\dntblnsbdb\nospaceforul\formshade\horzdoc\dghspace180\dgvspace180\dghorigin1701\dgvorigin1984\dghshow0\dgvshow0 \jexpand\viewkind1\viewscale146\viewzk2\pgbrdrhead\pgbrdrfoot\nolnhtadjtbl \fet0\sectd \linex-32767\endnhere\sectdefaultcl {\*\pnseclvl1\pnucrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxta .}}{\*\pnseclvl2\pnucltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxta .}} {\*\pnseclvl3\pndec\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxta .}}{\*\pnseclvl4\pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl5\pndec\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl6\pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxtb (} {\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl7\pnlcrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl8\pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl9\pnlcrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}\pard\plain \s20\qc\widctlpar \tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \fs48\lang1033\loch\af1\hich\af1\dbch\f5\cgrid \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 Justice for Iraq \par \pard\plain \s17\widctlpar\tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \fs22\lang1033\loch\af1\hich\af1\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs32 \par }\pard \s17\qc\widctlpar\tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\fs32 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 A draft programme for how those nations responsible for the invasion and occupation of Iraq can start repairing the damage that this war has inflicted upon Iraq, its people and international relations.} \par \pard\plain \s18\qc\widctlpar\tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \fs22\lang1033\loch\af1\hich\af1\dbch\f5\cgrid Version 0.4 \par \pard\plain \widctlpar\tx560\tx1120\tx1680\tx2240\tx2800\tx3360\tx3920\tx4480\tx5040\tx5600\tx6160\tx6720\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 Iraq today is not fre \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 e. It remains in the grip of a US-led military occupation that threatens Iraqis on a daily basis, restricting their movements and endangering their lives. The ongoing occupation and the violence that surrounds it have been responsible for hundreds of thou \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 s\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 ands of deaths and have prompted the region\rquote s worst ever refugee crisis. Unemployment has soared while essential services, food supplies and healthcare have all been devestated, so that even Iraqis who have escaped the direct effects of the violence are f\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 a \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 cing a precarious existence. \par \par \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 While Iraq has an elected parliament and a national government that is nominally sovereign, it is clear that the decisions that most effect Iraqis' lives remain in the hands of the occupying powers. Iraqis have largely lost f \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 aith in their leaders but, while these are propped up by foreign military forces, there is little scope for democratic accountability. State corruption and human rights abuses have flourished under the shadow of the occupation. References throughout this \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 d\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 ocument to \ldblquote an Iraqi government\rdblquote or \ldblquote Iraqi authorities\rdblquote etc are not taken to imply legitimation or endorsement Iraq's current, highly-compromised leadership. It is to be expected that the composition and nature of those authorities would change substantia\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 l\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 ly as the occupiers withdraw. \par \par \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 But the work of regaining the Iraqi people\rquote s trust is a matter not just for their own political leaders. The world has, for the most part, turned its back on Iraq\rquote s plight. The international community has failed to condemn \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 either the 2003 invasion or the subsequent occupation and the governments that have played the leading roles in this calamity, those of the USA and UK, continue to praise their own involvement in Iraq with what appears to be a callous disregard for its ap \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 p\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 aling consequences. The demands set out in this paper are an attempt to show a better way forward, calling on Iraq\rquote s occupiers to exchange military force for aid, reparations and the pursuit of peace and justice. \par \par }\pard\plain \s21\widctlpar\brdrb\brdrhair\brdrw10\brsp20 \tx560\tx1120\tx1680\tx2240\tx2800\tx3360\tx3920\tx4480\tx5040\tx5600\tx6160\tx6720\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \fs28\lang1033\loch\af1\hich\af1\dbch\f5\cgrid \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 PART 1 - ENDING THE OCCUPATION \par \pard\plain \s17\widctlpar\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \fs22\lang1033\loch\af1\hich\af1\dbch\f5\cgrid { \par }\pard\plain \nowidctlpar\faauto\rin0\lin0\itap0 \lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 After four years of worsening violence, it is clear that prolonging the occupation of Iraq will not deliver security for the people of Iraq. It is not merely that the presence of US-led forces over the last four years has been seemingly unable to prevent the d e aths of hundreds of thousands of Iraqi civilians in post-invasion violence. Military operations by the occupiers are actually responsible for a shameful proportion of those killings. Ending the military occupation is thus of fundamental importance in rest oring peace and security to Iraqi life. \par \par Opinion polls carried out inside Iraq indicate that ordinary Iraqis also see the occupation as the problem and want it to end swiftly. A poll conducted in September 2006 showed that 78 percent of Iraqis, including 82 percent of Shias, believed that the presence of US-led forces in Iraq was \ldblquote provoking more conflict than it is preventing.\rdblquote }{\cs16\fs22\super \chftn {\footnote \pard\plain \nowidctlpar\faauto\rin0\lin0\itap0 \lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\cs16\fs18\super \chftn }{\fs18 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 }{\scaps\fs18 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 World Public Opinion}{\fs18 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 , \ldblquote Most Iraqis Want U.S. Troops Out Within a Year\rdblquote , 27 September 2006. Similar findings have emerged in other surveys.}}}{\fs22 \par \par Support for acts of resistance to the occupying forces, including military resistance, is widespread among the Iraqi population. P oll evidence on the issue suggests that, in some Iraqi provinces at least, the majority support attacks on British and American troops and that this support is on the rise.}{\cs16\fs22\super \chftn {\footnote \pard\plain \nowidctlpar\faauto\rin0\lin0\itap0 \lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\cs16\fs18\super \chftn }{\fs18 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 }{\fs18 A poll conducted in August 2005 for the MoD found that \ldblquote Forty-five per cent of Iraqis believe attacks against }{\fs18 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 British and American troops are justified - rising to 65 per cent in the British-controlled Maysan province\rdblquote and \ldblquote 82 per cent are "strongly opposed" to the \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 presence of coalition troops\rdblquote . Sean }{\scaps\fs18 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 Rayment}{\fs18 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 , \ldblquote Secret MoD poll: Iraqis support attacks on British troops,\rdblquote }{\i\fs18 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 The Daily Telegraph}{\fs18 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 , 22 October 2005. Two polls conducted for World Public Opinion in }{\fs18 2006 found 47 percent overall support for attacks on US-led forces in January, rising to 61 percent by September \endash including 62 percent of Shias (see references).}}}{\fs22 Iraqis are deeply suspicious of the motives and intentions of the foreign occupier s. There is a widespread, and understandable, fear that the US and UK intend to stay rooted in Iraq for decades to come and to maintain permanent military bases in the country in order to exercise long-term control over the region and its oil. Two polls c onducted in 2006 showed that almost 80 percent of the overall population believe that the US was intending to create permanent military bases in Iraq and that they would ignore any requests to leave issued by the Iraqi government.}{\cs16\fs22\super \chftn {\footnote \pard\plain \s15\widctlpar\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\cs16\fs18\super \chftn }{\fs18 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 }{\fs18 Surveys conducted for World Public Opinion in January and September 2006 (see references).}}}{\fs22 When the political backer s of the occupation demonstrate so little willingness to pull out of Iraq, it is hardly surprising that Iraqis are either taking up arms to attempt to drive them out by force or supporting those who do. \par \par Since the fall of Saddam\rquote s regime in April 2003, Ira q has descended into an everworsening state of violence and insecurity. It is true that, by now, there are other factors at work in inciting violence besides the US-led forces and the resistance that counters them. But the presence of foreign occupying fo r ces remains one of the most, if not the most, significant catalyst for the spiraling violence in Iraq. It is also the easiest factor to remove; foreign troops will leave gladly the moment their governments order them home. Immediate withdrawal from Iraq b y US and UK forces would be both pragmatic and just. It would provide the first chance for a sovereign and democratic Iraq to emerge and the best hope for its return to peace and stability. \par \par }\pard\plain \s1\keepn\widctlpar\tx560\tx1120\tx1680\tx2240\tx2800\tx3360\tx3920\tx4480\tx5040\tx5600\tx6160\tx6720\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\outlinelevel0\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \b\fs26\lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 Key Demands \par }\pard\plain \widctlpar\tx560\tx1120\tx1680\tx2240\tx2800\tx3360\tx3920\tx4480\tx5040\tx5600\tx6160\tx6720\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \par }\pard \nowidctlpar\brdrb\brdrhair\brdrw10\brsp20 \faauto\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\fs22 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 1. The occupying powers must cease all offensive mili\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 tary operations in Iraq immediately and retire to their bases. Foreign troops should leave the country within weeks.2. All military bases and installations set up within Iraq by the occupying forces must be permanently dismantled.3. The 'Green Zone' m \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 u\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 st be returned to Iraqi control and integrated back into Baghdad. 4. Every person living or working in Iraq - including non-Iraqi contractors and security workers - should be subject to the rule of Iraqi law. No groups should be granted immunity from pro\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 s\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 ecution. 5. Any foreign advisors to the Iraqi government appointed by the occupiers should leave their posts immediately.6. Any construction work on a planned American super-embassy should be put on hold until a truly sovereign Iraqi authority is able \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 t\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 o judge such plans.}{\fs28 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 PART 2 - REFUGEES}{\fs22 \par }\pard \nowidctlpar\faauto\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\fs22 }{\fs22 The war and occupation have led to the worst refugee crisis ever seen in the region. The \par UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimates that there are now 2.2 million \par Iraqis outside of Iraq who have fled the country since March 2003, in addition to more \par than 2 million who are displaced inside the country. These numbers are still growing at a \par rapid pace; \lquote Syria alone receives a minimum of 30,000 Iraqis a month\rquote .}{\cs16\fs22\super \chftn {\footnote \pard\plain \nowidctlpar\faauto\rin0\lin0\itap0 \lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\cs16\fs18\super \chftn }{\fs18 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 }{\fs18 UNHCR, \ldblquote Number of Iraqi displaced tops 4.2 million; shanty towns mushroom\rdblquote , 5 June 2007.}}}{\fs22 . \par \par International agencies have highlighted the precarious situation of displaced Iraqis. \lquote The United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq and the World Food Programme indicate that at least 47 percent of the displaced have no access to official food distribution channels\rquote .}{\cs16\fs22\super \chftn {\footnote \pard\plain \s15\widctlpar\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\cs16\fs18\super \chftn }{\fs18 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 }{\fs18 Source as above.}}}{\fs22 \par }\pard \widctlpar\tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\fs22 \par }\pard\plain \s1\keepn\widctlpar\tx560\tx1120\tx1680\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\outlinelevel0\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \b\fs26\lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 Key demands \par }\pard\plain \widctlpar\brdrb\brdrhair\brdrw10\brsp20 \tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 1. The UK, USA and o\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 ther donor countries must heed the calls of the UNHCR for financial assistance in order to meet the needs of the growing Iraqi refugee population. The UNHCR and other relevant agencies should be enabled to provide aid packages for internally displaced Ira \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 q\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 is and those who have fled the country, including emergency accommodation, education and medical services, financial assistance, legal representation, etc. 2. Host countries should treat Iraqi refugees with respect and consideration. All efforts to forc\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 e\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 Iraqi refugees to return to Iraq must cease immediately, including forced deportations from the UK to Iraq's northern Kurdish provinces. The return of the refugees should be premised on the creation of conditions in their home towns and districts that gu \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 a\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 rantee their rights and safety. 3. Iraq's neighbours (Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey) should guarantee refugees fleeing Iraq unhindered safe passage through their borders. 4. Nations outside the region, and in particular those respon\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 s\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 ible for the invasion and occupation of Iraq, should commit to welcoming a sizeable share of Iraq's refugees (including those already in Syria and Jordan) and fund resettlement programmes to that end. 5. All existing types of Iraqi passport should be re \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 c\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 ognised as potentially valid by host nations and international border controls, at least until such time as the new, type 'G' passport is obtainable safely, speedily and affordably, both within Iraq and through its embassies abroad, and is held by most Ir \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 a\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 qis. }{\fs28 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 PART 3 - HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE \par }\pard \widctlpar\tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\fs22 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 Spiralling prices, mass unemployment, reductions in the food ration and or prolonged disruption to its supply have combined to bring about widespread malnutrition in Iraq. The United Nations, relevant international\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 agencies and foreign governments should immediately prioritise humanitarian assistance to the people of Iraq. All efforts must be made to meet the increasingly desperate Iraqi calls for aid in a number of key areas. \par }\pard\plain \s1\keepn\widctlpar\tx560\tx1120\tx1680\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\outlinelevel0\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \b\fs26\lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 Key demands \par }\pard\plain \widctlpar\brdrb\brdrhair\brdrw10\brsp20 \tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 1. The distribution of fo\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 od rations within Iraq must continue for as long as it is still required and extended where it is failing to meet basic needs. No attempts should be made by Iraqi authorities to reduce or withdraw the ration system and no pressure should be exerted by for \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 e\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 ign governments, the IMF or the World Bank to curb the food ration. 2. Staple food prices should be regulated within Iraq until economic stability is restored, to ensure that essential products remain affordable to all Iraqis. Iraq should be enabled to p\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 u\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 rchase any needed food imports on fair terms that do not disadvantage Iraqi producers.3. Financial and logistical aid should provided to Iraq where required by foreign donors to enable Iraqi authorities to obtain and distribute all necessary supplies to \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 the population. 4. The occupiers must address the dire shortage of medical and pharmaceutical supplies in Iraqi hospitals and clinics. Sufficient supplies of medicines, equipment and blood products should be provided immediately by foreign donors to eas \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 e\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 the current emergency within Iraq's health case system. Urgent efforts must be made by all parties to restore Iraq's own pharmaceutical industry. 5. The security of medical facilities and their staff must be respected by all armed groups in Iraq, includ\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 i\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 ng the occupying forces. Assassinations of health workers, military raids of hospital wards and attacks on ambulances must all cease immediately.}{\fs28 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 PART 4 - DETAINEES AND HUMAN RIGHTS}{\fs22 \par }\pard \widctlpar\tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\fs22 \par }\pard \nowidctlpar\faauto\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\fs22 Although a shocking number of cases of detainee abuse within Iraq\rquote s occ upation-controlled jails have hit the headlines, we must fear that these represent a small proportion of the true total. Foriegn forces have been responsible for rounding up and detaining many tens of thousands of Iraqis during their four-year occupation o f Iraq. The incontrovertible cases of documented abuse are condemned with near unanimity. But the strange situation of a foreign army seizing and detaining sections of the civilian population at will, and holding them indefinitely without charge, trial o r access to legal representation, has aroused little concern amongst our politicians and mainstream commentators. It is, nevertheless, an outrage to human rights that differs little from the horrors of Guantanamo Bay. For Iraqis, the frequently arbitrary s eizure and mistreatment of friends and family members by the occupation forces is one of the principal sources for the ever-rising resentment and hostility towards the US and UK presence in their country. \par \par All parties involved should take urgent steps to normalise this situation. Doing so will demonstrate their commitment to the rights and freedoms of the Iraqi people, and to their national sovereignty. \par }\pard \widctlpar\tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\fs22 \par }\pard\plain \s1\keepn\widctlpar\tx560\tx1120\tx1680\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\outlinelevel0\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \b\fs26\lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 Key demands \par }\pard\plain \widctlpar\tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 1. All jails operating in Iraq must be declared and made open to scrutiny. The staff of the \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 Red Cross and Red Crescent must be able to carry out monitoring of Iraqi prisons without delays, harassment or interference. 2. The whereabouts of all detainees must be made known to their families and representatives. All detainees should be permitted r\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 e\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 gular visits and access to legal representation. 3. The human rights of prisoners and detainees must be rigourously policed by the Iraqi authorities. Jailers and interrogators - Iraqi or otherwise - must be held fully accountable in Iraqi courts whenever\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 evidence of abuse is found. \par \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 4. Any detainees who have been arrested by Iraqi citizens for crimes under Iraqi law should have their cases processed swiftly in a manner consistent with legal norms. If there is evidence to support a prosecution, detainees wh \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 ould be able to expect a fair trial under Iraqi jurisdiction. \par \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 5. Any other detainees held by American or British forces in Iraq must be released without delay. \par }\pard \widctlpar\brdrb\brdrhair\brdrw10\brsp20 \tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\fs22 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 6. All persons wrongfully detained in Iraq, either by the occupying forces or by Iraqi securi\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 ty forces, should be provided with adequate compensation in proportion to the length of their imprisonment. All detainees who have experienced torture and abuse whilst in detention should receive suitable compensation for injury and trauma and free medica \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 l\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 /psychiatric care as required. }{\fs28 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 PART 5 - FINANCIAL REPARATIONS}{\fs22 \par }\pard\plain \s1\keepn\widctlpar\tx560\tx1120\tx1680\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\outlinelevel0\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \b\fs26\lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \par \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 Key demands \par }\pard\plain \widctlpar\brdrb\brdrhair\brdrw10\brsp20 \tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 1. The nations that have participated in the illegal invasion and occupation of Iraq from March 2003 to the present should pay reparations to the Iraqi people in proportion to t\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 he level of their involvement. These reparations should be calculated to meet the cost of:a) the full restoration of all buildings and infrastructure damaged by military operations since March 2003b) compensation for personal injury and bereavement resu \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 l\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 ting from the invasion and occupationc) compensation for loss of earnings as a result of the disruption of Iraqi economic life d) compensation for all property damaged, destroyed, extorted or stolen by the occupying forces and their allies, by Iraqi sec\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 u\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 rity forces or by criminal gangs unleashed by the lawless conditions of the occupation.2. The nations that perpetuated the punitive sanctions regime to which Iraq was subject between 1991 and 2003 - chief among them the USA and UK - should pay further r \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 e\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 parations to the Iraqi people. These payments are to compensate for the damage that this policy callously inflicted on the health and economic wellbeing of Iraqis despite clear evidence at the time that its strictures went far beyond the needs of weapons \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 c\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 ontrol and were responsible for hundreds of thousands of excess deaths. 3. The USA and UK should pay additional reparations for the economic and structural damage inflicted on north and south Iraq by their bombing operations in the illegally declared 'no\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 -\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 fly zones' between 1991 and 2003, and compensate the human victims of these raids or their bereaved families.4. All reparation payments should be handed over to Iraq without conditions. Iraqis must be free to choose how to conduct or commission reconstr \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 u\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 ction without foreign interference.}{\fs28 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 PART 6 - ECONOMIC JUSTICE AND EMPLOYMENT}{\fs22 \par }\pard\plain \s1\keepn\widctlpar\tx560\tx1120\tx1680\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\outlinelevel0\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \b\fs26\lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \par \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 Key demands \par }\pard\plain \widctlpar\brdrb\brdrhair\brdrw10\brsp20 \tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 1. All odious debts incurred by the regime of Saddam Hussein should be cancelled forthwith by the creditors. This should include outstanding reparation charges lev\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 ied on the Iraqi government in connection with Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990.2. Iraq should be released from any commitments entered into with the IMF or other international creditors during conditions of occupation. Until odious debts are cancelled \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 ,\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 the Iraqi economy has returned to normal conditions, reparations have been paid by the occupiers and the Iraqi government is fully sovereign, no such agreements can be considered fair or binding. 3. All economic laws introduced by the Coalition Pro \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 v\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 isional Authority are to be considered null and void. 4. The US treasury must refund any Iraqi revenues that have been exploited to fund grossly negligent and over-charged 'reconstruction' programmes commissioned by the occupying powers and forfeit any f\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 u\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 ture claims it may have on Iraqi funds to recoup such expenditure.5. Full public inquiries should be opened in both Iraq and the USA to investigate the whereabouts of the public funds totalling several billion dollars that have disappeared within in Ira \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 q\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 since the start of the occupation. All persons who are implicated in the theft and misappropriation of these funds should face charges accordingly. 6. All outstanding contracts between the Iraqi government and foreign contractors entered into since Apri\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 l\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 2003 will be considered non-binding and open to unilateral cancellation by a post-occupation government without penalty. 7. Iraq should not be forced into selling off state assets simply because foreign investment promises to repair the crippling e \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 f\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 fects of sanctions, war and occupation. Where non-Iraqi input is sought to rebuild Iraqi enterprise, Iraqis should be able to regulate it under fixed-term arrangements that protect their fragile economy from ruthless exploitation. The international commun \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 i\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 ty should respect Iraqi efforts to protect their economic sovereignty and not seek to undermine them through institutional, diplomatic or economic pressure. 8. Companies operating in Iraq should seek wherever possible to employ Iraqi residents. 9. W\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 o\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 rkers in Iraq must be free to form trade unions of their own choosing without fear of intimidation or victimisation. }{\fs28 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 PART 7 \endash REMNANTS OF WAR}{\fs22 \par }\pard \nowidctlpar\faauto\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\fs22 \par Successive wars and years of occupation have left a deadly legacy in Iraqi soil. The remnants of both unexplo ded munitions and depleted uranium (DU) tipped weaponry pose a long-term risk to Iraqi health. The USA and UK share a heavy burden to locate and clean up these remnants. If we shirk this duty, there is a high probability that Iraqis born decades from now w ill still be suffering dire health problems and injuries as a result of military action carried out in Iraq in 2003 - or indeed earlier (DU was used extensively during the 1991 Gulf War). The tragedy of Vietnam, where children born today are still sufferi ng from the use of Agent Orange as a weapon in a war that ended more than thirty years ago, should not be repeated due to our negligence. \par \par }\pard\plain \s2\keepn\nowidctlpar\faauto\outlinelevel1\rin0\lin0\itap0 \b\f18\fs22\lang1033\cgrid {\f1 Key demands \par }\pard\plain \nowidctlpar\faauto\rin0\lin0\itap0 \lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \par 1. }{\fs22 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 The military forces and governments involved in the invasion and occupation of Iraq should}{\fs22 promptly di sclose full details (dates, quantities, map references etc.) of every instance where they have deployed cluster bombs, }{\fs22 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 depleted uranium tipped ammunition and non-conventional weapons within Iraq}{\fs22 . This disclosure should extend back to 1991. \par \par 2. The same governments should also co-operate fully with Iraqis in sharing all expertise likely to assist in cleaning up the remnants of these weapons and should meet all requests from Iraq for personnel to carry out clean-up operations. \par \par 3. The UK government should ste p back from its tradition of blanket denials that DU poses any risk to human health. A moratorium on the military use of DU by UK armed forces should be imposed immediately. Our government ought to actively promote and facilitate scientific co-operation b etween international experts in the diseases, syndromes and defects linked to DU contamination in Iraq in order to bring about a speedy understanding of causes, treatments and preventative measures. \par }\pard \widctlpar\tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\fs22 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 4. Those nations responsible for the use of cluster bombs \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 within Iraq should share all relevant technological and medical knowledge in their possession - including waiving intellectual property rights where appropriate - in order to aid Iraqis in producing, sourcing and fitting high-quality prosthetics. \par \par }\pard\plain \s3\keepn\widctlpar\brdrb\brdrhair\brdrw10\brsp20 \tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\outlinelevel2\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \fs28\lang1033\loch\af1\hich\af1\dbch\f5\cgrid \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 PART 8 \endash ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE \par \pard\plain \widctlpar\tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \par }\pard\plain \s2\keepn\widctlpar\tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\outlinelevel1\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \b\f18\fs22\lang1033\cgrid {\loch\af1\hich\af1\dbch\f5 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 Key demands \par }\pard\plain \widctlpar\tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 1. The USA, and any other occupying nations responsible for damage to Iraq's unique archaeological heritage, will offer to fund teams of international experts to assess such damage and advise on salvage and restora\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 tion work if requested to do so by Iraq. \par \par }\pard \widctlpar\brdrb\brdrhair\brdrw10\brsp20 \tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\fs22 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 2. Concerted international efforts will be made to investigate the theft of archaeological remains from Iraq during the occupation - including looting by foreign soldiers and contractors - and to ensure that stolen\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 remains are recovered into Iraqi hands.}{\fs28 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 PART 9 - WAR CRIMES}{\fs22 \par }\pard\plain \s1\keepn\widctlpar\tx560\tx1120\tx1680\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\outlinelevel0\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \b\fs26\lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \par \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 Key demands \par }\pard\plain \widctlpar\brdrb\brdrhair\brdrw10\brsp20 \tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 1. All nations that have supplied military personnel as part of the invading or occupying forces in Iraq have a duty to uphold international conventions and must investigate all a\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 llegations of criminal activity by their troops and co-operate fully with Iraqi investigators. 2. Prosecuting authorities within the belligerent countries should investigate all evidence that government policy makers or chief military officers have been \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 party to breaches of international or domestic law and take action accordingly. In the absence of such a voluntary response, all nations should co-operate fully with the International Criminal Court in efforts to secure the prosecution of those chiefly re \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 s\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 ponsible for war crimes in Iraq. 3. The legal haze surrounding the activities of private security contractors in conflict zones must be resolved by international agreement. Contractors must be held accountable to the same international standards as regul\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 a \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 r soldiers, with clear lines of legal redress. 4. Any individuals, whether private persons or government officials, who have aided, funded or armed paramilitary or terrorist groups operating against the Iraqi people must be charged and prosecuted.}{\fs28 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 PART \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 10 - NATIONAL RECONCILIATION}{\fs22 \par }\pard\plain \s1\keepn\widctlpar\tx560\tx1120\tx1680\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\outlinelevel0\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \b\fs26\lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \par \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 Key demands \par }\pard\plain \widctlpar\brdrb\brdrhair\brdrw10\brsp20 \tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 1. Talks should be opened rapidly between representatives of the anti-occupation resistance and the Iraqi government.2. Iraqis who have been detained in connection with resistance activities against the occupyin \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 g forces - military or otherwise \endash ought to be regarded as prisoners of war and should not face punishment for such actions. Iraqis who are currently detained because of involvement, or suspected involvement, in actions against the occupying forces must b\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 e \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 released without charge.3. Fresh national elections should be scheduled within six months of the departure of foreign troops. Resistance members should be able to participate in the political process.}{\fs28 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 PART 11 - RECONSTITUTING INTERNATIONAL NORMS}{\fs22 \par }\pard\plain \s1\keepn\widctlpar\tx560\tx1120\tx1680\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\outlinelevel0\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \b\fs26\lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \par \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 Key \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 demands \par }\pard\plain \widctlpar\tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \lang1033\loch\af5\hich\af5\dbch\f5\cgrid {\fs22 \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 1. All countries that have taken part in the invasion and occupation of Iraq shall:a) declare that the invasion was illegal and that they will, from now on, abide by the principles of the UN charter and renounce the 'pre-emptive strike' doctrine \hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 b) reaffirm their commitment to norms relating to war crimes and crimes against humanity and their full intention to comply with these with regard to their troops, officials and contractors in Iraq c) acknowledge that any people has the right, in principl\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 e\hich\af1\dbch\af5\loch\f1 and practice, to resist a foreign occupation by both peaceful and military means and recognise that national resistance movements have a moral right to be represented in any political process leading towards a restoration of sovereignty. \par \par }\pard \nowidctlpar\faauto\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\fs22 \page }{\b\fs28\cf1 References \par }{\fs22\cf1 \par }\pard \fi-426\li426\nowidctlpar\faauto\rin0\lin426\itap0 {\fs22\cf1 Sean }{\scaps\fs22\cf1 Rayment}{\fs22\cf1 , \ldblquote Secret MoD poll: Iraqis support attacks on British troops,\rdblquote }{\i\fs22\cf1 The Daily Telegraph}{\fs22\cf1 , 22 October 2005. \par }\pard \li426\nowidctlpar\faauto\rin0\lin426\itap0 {\field{\*\fldinst {\fs22\cf2 HYPERLINK "http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2005/10/23/wirq23.xml&sSheet=/portal/2005/10/23/ixportaltop.html" }{\fs22\cf2 {\*\datafield 00d0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b02000000170000007600000068007400740070003a002f002f007700770077002e00740065006c006500670072006100700068002e0063006f002e0075006b002f006e006500770073002f006d00610069006e002e006a00680074006d006c003f0078006d006c003d002f006e00 6500770073002f0032003000300035002f00310030002f00320033002f007700690072007100320033002e0078006d006c0026007300530068006500650074003d002f0070006f007200740061006c002f0032003000300035002f00310030002f00320033002f006900780070006f007200740061006c0074006f0070002e 00680074006d006c000000e0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90bec00000068007400740070003a002f002f007700770077002e00740065006c006500670072006100700068002e0063006f002e0075006b002f006e006500770073002f006d00610069006e002e006a00680074006d006c003f0078006d006c003d002f00 6e006500770073002f0032003000300035002f00310030002f00320033002f007700690072007100320033002e0078006d006c0026007300530068006500650074003d002f0070006f007200740061006c002f0032003000300035002f00310030002f00320033002f006900780070006f007200740061006c0074006f0070 002e00680074006d006c000000}}}{\fldrslt {\cs19\fs22\ul\cf2 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2005/10/23/wirq23.xml&sSheet=/portal/2005/10/23/ixportaltop.html}}}{\fs22\cf2 \par }\pard \nowidctlpar\faauto\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\fs22\cf1 \par }\pard \fi-426\li426\nowidctlpar\faauto\rin0\lin426\itap0 {\fs22\cf1 UNHCR, \ldblquote Number of Iraqi displaced tops 4.2 million; shanty towns mushroom\rdblquote , 5 June 2007. \par }\pard \li426\nowidctlpar\faauto\rin0\lin426\itap0 {\field{\*\fldinst {\fs22\cf2 HYPERLINK "http://www.unhcr.org/news/NEWS/466579e64.html" }{\fs22\cf2 {\*\datafield 00d0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b02000000170000002e00000068007400740070003a002f002f007700770077002e0075006e006800630072002e006f00720067002f006e006500770073002f004e004500570053002f003400360036003500370039006500360034002e00680074006d006c000000e0c9ea79f9ba ce118c8200aa004ba90b5c00000068007400740070003a002f002f007700770077002e0075006e006800630072002e006f00720067002f006e006500770073002f004e004500570053002f003400360036003500370039006500360034002e00680074006d006c000000}}}{\fldrslt {\cs19\fs22\ul\cf2 http://www.unhcr.org/news/NEWS/466579e64.html}}}{\fs22\cf2 \par }\pard \nowidctlpar\faauto\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\fs22\cf1 \par }\pard \fi-426\li426\nowidctlpar\faauto\rin0\lin426\itap0 {\scaps\fs22\cf1 World Public Opinion}{\fs22\cf1 , \ldblquote Poll of Iraqis: Public Wants Timetable for US Withdrawal, but Thinks US Plans Permanent Bases in Iraq\rdblquote , 31 January 2006. \par }\pard \li426\nowidctlpar\faauto\rin0\lin426\itap0 {\field{\*\fldinst {\fs22\cf2 HYPERLINK "http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/brmiddleeastnafricara/165.php" }{\fs22\cf2 {\*\datafield 00d0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b02000000170000004e00000068007400740070003a002f002f007700770077002e0077006f0072006c0064007000750062006c00690063006f00700069006e0069006f006e002e006f00720067002f0070006900700061002f00610072007400690063006c00650073002f006200 72006d006900640064006c00650065006100730074006e00610066007200690063006100720061002f003100360035002e007000680070000000e0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b9c00000068007400740070003a002f002f007700770077002e0077006f0072006c0064007000750062006c00690063006f00700069 006e0069006f006e002e006f00720067002f0070006900700061002f00610072007400690063006c00650073002f00620072006d006900640064006c00650065006100730074006e00610066007200690063006100720061002f003100360035002e007000680070000000}}}{\fldrslt {\cs19\fs22\ul\cf2 http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/brmiddleeastnafricara/165.php}}}{\fs22\cf2 \par \par }\pard \nowidctlpar\faauto\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\fs22\cf1 - \ldblquote Most Iraqis Want U.S. Troops Out Within a Year\rdblquote , 27 September 2006. \par }\pard \li426\nowidctlpar\faauto\rin0\lin426\itap0 {\field{\*\fldinst {\fs22\cf2 HYPERLINK "http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/brmiddleeastnafricara/250.php" }{\fs22\cf2 {\*\datafield 00d0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b02000000170000004e00000068007400740070003a002f002f007700770077002e0077006f0072006c0064007000750062006c00690063006f00700069006e0069006f006e002e006f00720067002f0070006900700061002f00610072007400690063006c00650073002f006200 72006d006900640064006c00650065006100730074006e00610066007200690063006100720061002f003200350030002e007000680070000000e0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b9c00000068007400740070003a002f002f007700770077002e0077006f0072006c0064007000750062006c00690063006f00700069 006e0069006f006e002e006f00720067002f0070006900700061002f00610072007400690063006c00650073002f00620072006d006900640064006c00650065006100730074006e00610066007200690063006100720061002f003200350030002e007000680070000000}}}{\fldrslt {\cs19\fs22\ul\cf2 http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/brmiddleeastnafricara/250.php}}}{\fs22\cf2 \par }\pard \nowidctlpar\faauto\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\fs22\cf1 \par }\pard \widctlpar\tx565\tx1133\tx1700\tx2266\tx2832\tx3401\tx3967\tx4535\tx5102\tx5669\tx6235\tx6802\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\fs22 \par }}